IPv4 is the fourth version of the Internet Protocol (IP), it is the core of the Internet, which sets the rules for the operation of computer networks on the basis of the exchange of packages. This protocol is responsible for establishing a connection between network nodes (computers, servers, mobile devices, etc.) based on IP addresses.

The IP address fields contain the IP addresses of the sender and recipient. In IPv4, an IP address consists of 4 bytes and is often represented as 4 numbers, 1 byte in size, separated by dots, which gives a little more than 4 billion different addresses. In this scheme, each computer on the Internet has its own unique address. But when Internet resources appeared, the addresses were distributed in huge blocks.

This led to the fact that their space began to run out. The day is approaching when the 32-bit address space would be exhausted, which would lead to a halt in the development of the Internet. IPv4 scalability issues don't end there. There are also problems with data transport because of the complexity of routing.

Also, IPv4 lacks some of the mechanisms needed by modern standards. These are information security mechanisms and the class of service support tools. There are no data encryption methods, which are now very useful in practice. And such tools should be implemented at the network level.

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